Guide To Ceiling Lights: Sizing
Using incorrectly sized lights can completely throw off the atmosphere of an entire space and hinder lighting functionality. Not all lights are suitable for a location. Some may be too big, some may be too small, and others may not provide the right amount of illumination. Knowing how to measure your fixtures avoids these issues. It provides comfort and enhances visual appeal. Get the most out of your lighting design by following the guidelines below. Once you know how to calculate the right measurements you’ll be able to find the lighting fixture that best suits your needs.
Hanging lighting fixtures
Pendants and chandelier lights require you to calculate measurements for three categories. First, determine the size of the fixture. This means calculating the diameter and height, or scale, of the fixture. The fixture needs a certain amount of clearance to avoid bumping into it while navigating throughout the space. And you need to know how to space the fixture within the area.
1. Scale: Diameter and Height
When measuring the diameter and height, first calculate it in feet and then convert it into inches. To get the diameter for an open space, simply add the length and width of the room. Change feet into inches. If it’s a 10ft by 12ft space, 22ft becomes 22 inches. For the minimum height, measure from the floor to the ceiling. Multiple this number by 2.5. Convert it to inches. So, if the measurement from the floor is 10 inches, multiply it by 2.5. The minimum height of your fixture is 25 inches. The maximum height of your fixture will always be 30 inches. The measurements for your fixture height is between 25 to 30 inches.
Clearance is the amount of space between the floor and the bottom of your fixture. Your fixture should be low enough that you won’t hit it. Where you place your fixture determines the amount of clearance needed.
Fixture placement within the room depends on the room itself. For example, if you’re placing your fixture over a dining room table, table shape and size must be taken into consideration. The fixture you use will have different size requirements in order to work within the space. We want to keep the fixture proportional to the room. Some fixtures must comply with certain codes so be sure to check whether there are any standards your fixture must meet. Now, let’s apply these rules to hanging lighting fixtures.
Pendants and chandeliers
Pendants and chandeliers create ambient lighting for the entire room. Kitchens typically have overhead pendants serving as ambient or task lighting. Your fixture must have the right diameter for ideal ambient lighting. Add the length and height of the room. The width or length of the fixture should be at least 1ft shorter than the total table length. Keep in mind, design affects fixture size. Complex designs may appear larger so consider a smaller size to maintain balance.
If you are hanging multiple pendants over a table surface, add the diameter of each pendant and combine all the numbers for the total diameter. Next, subtract that number from the table or island length. Add 1 to that number to include the space between each fixture and the ends of the table. Divide the subtracted value by the number of pendants. If you decide on bigger pendants, then use an even number of pendants. If hanging two fixtures, make sure they are ⅓ of the table or island width.
Remember, ceiling height determines how low your fixture should hang. For 8ft ceilings, it’s best to use flush mounts or semi-flush mounts. However, if you decide on a hanging light fixture over a tabletop, keep 28-36” of clearance between the table surface and fixture bottom. If your ceiling is higher than 8ft, add 3 inches for each additional foot. Chandeliers are best for ceilings 10ft or higher. Chandeliers with long chains make it easier for you to adjust the height. Be sure that a fixture with a downrod is long enough. When placing two chandeliers over long tables, each must be ⅓ of table length. Center the fixtures on each half of the table. Adjust the fixture according to its size, and ceiling height, and the height of the people.
Give at least 7ft of clearance in living rooms, bedrooms, and open foyers. The bottom of the fixture in an open foyer or hallway should be at least 6” higher than the door. Under The National Electric Code, fixtures over bathtubs require 8ft of space between the fixture bottom and the top of the tub. To avoid violating any regulations, place the fixture in the center of the bathroom.
Check sight lines for glare when hanging in areas with second stories or over tables. Pendants need to have at least 1ft of clearance underneath to give room for walking. The rule of thumb when hanging mini or medium-sized pendants is to give 66-72” of clearance from the floor to the fixture bottom. Install smaller pendants above sinks for taller people and to avoid blocking windows.
When hanging chandeliers or pendants, hang them lower in areas where people will likely linger, so they have more light to see. Use smaller chandeliers in smaller bathrooms, spacing them 3ft away from the tub. Linear suspension or multi-light pendants complement long rectangular or oval tables. Line multiple smaller pendants across a table if you want to add drama. Center a single pendant or chandelier over a square or round table. For islands or tables, calculate the spacing with the same formula used for finding its scale.
Apply the same measurement rules as hanging light fixtures under the three specifications. Follow the guidelines provided by The American Lighting Association to calculate ceiling fan size.
When sizing these fixtures, factor in blade dimensions. Blades range from 29-54 inches. Fans in 75 square feet rooms should be 29-36 inches. A room that is 76-144 square feet should have a fan with a diameter between 36-42 inches. A diameter of up to 44 inches fits in a room of 144-225 square feet. Fans should be 50-54 inches in diameter for 225 to 400 square feet rooms.
Give 7.5 ft of clearance between the floor and fan for 8ft ceilings and 9-10ft for taller ceilings.
In a bedroom, your ceiling fan should be centered at the foot of your bed. If your ceiling fan has a light kit, it will provide ambient lighting without causing glare when sitting on the bed. In other rooms, center them but be mindful of air vents and chimneys that may be in the way. Install the fan at least 12 inches away from walls and air vents.
Before installing your recessed lights, draw a diagram. Include any furnishings and objects. Divide the ceiling height by 2 for an even spacing of fixtures. No need to calculate spacing if placing the lights in specific areas. Consider putting the lights on dimmers if they are close together so you can easily adjust light intensity. Place recessed lights 3ft away from walls to prevent shadows and the appearance of a lower ceiling.
Sizing your ceiling lights is important to your lighting design. Take the time to take measurements according to the guidelines. That way, your fixtures will give you the optimal lighting for your space while enhancing its overall look.